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What is causing my rash?


Last updated Wed 2 August 2017
By Tim Newman
Reviewed by Daniel Murrell, MD

Causes
Home remedies
Seeing a doctor
56 possible causes


A rash is defined as a widespread eruption of skin lesions. It is a very broad medical term. Rashes can vary in appearance greatly, and there are many potential causes. Because of the variety, there is also a wide range of treatments.A rash can be local to just one small part of the body, or it can cover a large area. Rashes come in many forms. They can be dry, moist, bumpy, smooth, cracked, or blistered; they can be painful, itch, and even change color.
Rashes affect millions of people across the world; some rashes may need no treatment and will clear up on their own, some can be treated at home; others might be a sign of something more serious.
Causes

There are a number of potential causes of rashes, including allergies, diseases, reactions, and medications. They can also be caused by bacterial, fungal, viral, or parasitic infections.
Contact dermatitis

One of the most common causes of rashes - contact dermatitis - occurs when the skin has a reaction to something that it has touched. The skin may become red and inflamed, and the rash tends to be weepy and oozy. Common causes include:

dyes in clothes
beauty products
poisonous plants, such as poison ivy and sumac
chemicals, such as latex or rubber

Medications

Certain medications can cause rashes in some people; this may be a side effect or an allergic reaction. Also, some medications, including some antibiotics, cause photosensitivity - they make the individual more susceptible to sunlight. The photosensitivity reaction looks similar to sunburn.
Infections

Infections by bacteria, viruses, or fungi can also cause a rash. These rashes will vary depending on the type of infection. For instance, candidiasis, a common fungal infection, causes an itchy rash that generally appears in skin folds.
It is important to see a doctor if an infection is suspected.
Autoimmune conditions

An autoimmune condition occurs when an individual's immune system begins to attack healthy tissue. There are many autoimmune diseases, some of which can produce rashes.
For instance, lupus is a condition that affects a number of body systems, including the skin. It produces a butterfly-shaped rash on the face.

Home remedies

نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة

A young girl with chickenpox.
Rashes come in many forms and develop for many reasons.
However, there are some basic measures that can speed up recovery and ease some of the discomfort:

Use mild soap - not scented. These soaps are sometimes advertised for sensative skin, or for baby skin.
Avoid washing with hot water - opt for warm.
Try to allow the rash to breathe. Do not cover with a Band-Aid or bandage.
Do not rub the rash dry, pat it.
If the rash is dry, for instance, in eczema, use unscented moisturizers.
Do not use any cosmetics or lotions that may be causing the rash - for instance, newly purchased items.
Avoid scratching to lessen the risk of infection.
Cortisone creams that can be purchased over-the-counter or online may ease itching.
Calamine can relieve some rashes, e.g. poison ivy, chickenpox, and poison oak.

If the rash causes mild pain, acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be useful, but these are not a long-term solution - they will not treat the cause of the rash.
It is important to speak with a doctor before taking any medication. Compare brands before purchasing over-the-counter or online products, to ensure the product is suitable.
Seeing a doctor

If a rash occurs with the following symptoms, it is important to visit a doctor:

a sore throat
pain in joints
if you have had a recent animal or insect bite
red streaks near the rash
tender regions near the rash
a large collection of pus

Although the majority of rashes are not a major cause for concern, anyone experiencing the following symptoms should go to the hospital straight away:

quickly changing coloration on the skin
difficulty breathing or feeling like the throat is closing up
increasing pain or severe pain
high fever
confusion
dizziness
swelling of the face or extremities
severe pain in the neck or head
repeated vomiting or diarrhea


56 possible causes of rash

نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


1. Bites and stings
Many insects can cause a rash through a bite or sting. Although the reaction will vary depending on the person and the animal, symptoms often include:
redness and rash
itching
pain
swelling - either localized to the site of the bite or sting or more widespread


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


2. Flea bites
Fleas are tiny jumping insects that can live in fabrics within the home. They have a very fast breeding cycle and can take over a home very rapidly.
flea bites on humans often appear as red spots
the skin can become irritated and painful
secondary infections can be caused by scratching


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


3. Fifth disease
Also known as erythema infectiosum and slapped cheek syndrome, fifth disease is caused by the parvovirus B19. One of the symptoms is a rash, which appears in three stages:
A blotchy red rash on the cheeks with groups of red papules.
After 4 days, a net of red marks may appear on the arms and trunk.
In the third stage, the rash only appears after exposure to sunlight or heat.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


4. Impetigo
Impetigo is a highly contagious skin infection that most commonly affects children. The first sign is normally a patch of red, itchy skin. There are two types of impetigo:
Non-bullous impetigo - red sores appear around the mouth and nose.
Bullous impetigo - less common, generally affects children under 2. Medium to large blisters appear on the trunk, arms, and legs.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


5. Shingles
Shingles is an infection of an individual nerve. It is caused by the same virus as chickenpox - the varicella-zoster virus. Symptoms include:
A rash similar to chickenpox in a band around the infected nerve.
Blisters can merge producing a solid red band.
Rash is often painful.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


6. Scabies
Scabies is a skin condition caused by a microscopic mite. It is very contagious and spreads easily through person-to-person contact. Symptoms include:
Intense itching - often worse at night.
Rash - appears in lines as the mite burrows. Blisters are sometimes present.
Sores - may appear where the rash has been scratched.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


7. Eczema
Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions. It often first develops in childhood. Symptoms depend on the type of eczema and on the age of the individual but they often include:
dry scaly patches on the skin
intensely itchy rash
cracked and rough skin


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


8. Hay fever
Hay fever, or allergic rhinitis, is an allergic response to pollen. Symptoms can be similar to those of a common cold, such as:
runny nose
watery eyes
sneezing
Hay fever can also cause a rash, similar to hives. These will appear as itchy red patches or eruptions on the skin.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


9. Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever is a disease caused by a toxin released by a bacteria - Streptococcus pyogenes - the same bacteria that is responsible for Strep throat. Symptoms include a sore throat, rash, and fever. The rash has the following characteristics:
red blotches
blotches turn to fine pink-red rash like sunburn
skin feels rough


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


10. Rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction to a streptococcal infection, such as Strep throat. It most commonly affects children aged 5-15. Symptoms include:
small painless bumps under skin
red skin rash
swollen tonsils


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


11. Mono (mononucleosis)
Mono, or mononucleosis, is caused by a virus. It is rarely serious, but symptoms can include:
a pink, measle-like rash
body aches
high fevers


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


12. Ringworm
Ringworm, despite its name, is caused by a fungus. The fungal infection affects the top layer of the skin, scalp, and nails. Symptoms vary depending on the site of the infection, but can include:
itchy, red rash in rings - sometimes slightly raised
small patches of scaly skin
hair near patches breaks away


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


13. Measles
Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by the rubeola virus. Symptoms include:
a reddish-brown rash
small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers in the mouth
dry cough


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


14. Yeast infection (candidiasis)
Candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the genitals. It affects both sexes, but more commonly, women. Symptoms include:
rash
pain and soreness in the genital area
itching, burning, and irritation


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


15. Stasis dermatitis
Stasis dermatitis is also known as varicose eczema. It develops due to poor circulation and most commonly affects the lower legs. Symptoms include:
varicose veins covered in itchy, dry skin
red, swollen, painful skin, which may weep or crust over
heavy, aching legs after standing for some time


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


16. German measles
Also known as rubella, German measles are an infection caused by the rubella virus. Symptoms include:
rash - less bright than measles, often begins on the face
inflamed, red eyes
stuffy nose


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


17. Sepsis
Sepsis, often called blood poisoning, is a medical emergency. It is the result of a wide scale immune response to an infection. Symptoms vary, but can include:
a rash that does not fade under pressure
fever
increased heart rate


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


18. West Nile virus
West Nile virus is an infection spread by mosquitos. Often, there are no symptoms, but if they do occur, they can include:
raised and/or flat, pink skin rash on the trunk, arms, or legs
excessive sweating
vomiting


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


19. Lyme disease
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms include an erythema migrans rash that often appears in the early stages of the disease.
The rash begins as a small red area that may be warm to the touch but not itchy.
The center loses color, giving it a bull's-eye appearance.
The rash does not necessarily appear at the site of the tick bite.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


20. Cellulitis
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the deep layer of skin - the dermis. It normally occurs when bacteria enter through a break in the skin. Symptoms include:
Skin sores or rash that starts suddenly and grows quickly.
Warm skin around the redness.
Fever and fatigue.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


21. MRSA
MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) is a contagious bacterial infection that is resistant to a range of antibiotics. This makes it difficult to treat. Symptoms include:
rash
swelling and tenderness in the affected part of the body
wounds that do not heal
Photo credit: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


22. Chickenpox
Chickenpox is an infection by the varicella zoster virus. It is unpleasant, but most people recover within a couple of weeks. Symptoms include:
An itchy rash of small red spots first appears on the face and trunk, and then spreads across the body.
Spots then develop blisters on top.
After 48 hours, the blisters cloud and start to dry out.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


23. Lupus
Lupus is an autoimmune disease, meaning that the immune system attacks healthy tissue. Symptoms vary widely from person to person, but can include:
Butterfly-shaped rash across the cheeks and the bridge of the nose.
Flaky red spots or a purple, scaly rash on the face, neck, or arms.
Skin sensitivity to the sun.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


24. Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome is a rare condition sparked by a bacterial infection. It develops quickly and can be life-threatening. All people who have toxic shock syndrome have fever and a rash with the following characteristics:
looks similar to sunburn and covers most of the body
flat not raised
turns white when pressed


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


25. Acute HIV infection
During the first stages of HIV, levels of the virus in the blood are very high because the immune system has not yet started tackling the infection. Early symptoms include a rash with the following features:
mostly affects the upper part of the body
flat or barely raised small red dots
not generally itchy


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


26. Hand, foot, and mouth
Hand, foot, and mouth is a childhood illness resulting from a viral infection. Symptoms include:
Rash - flat, non-itchy red blisters on the hands and soles of the feet.
Loss of appetite.
Ulcers on the throat, tongue, and mouth.
Image credit: KlatschmohnAcker


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


27. Acrodermatitis
Acrodermatitis, a type of pustular psoriasis, is also known as Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. It is associated with viral infections. Symptoms include:
itchy purple or red blisters
swollen lymph nodes
bloated abdomen


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


28. Hookworm
Hookworm is a common intestinal parasite. It can cause a range of complications. Symptoms include:
Skin rash in one particular area that is red, itchy, and raised.
Breathing complications.
Extreme tiredness.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


29. Kawasaki disease
Kawasaki's disease is a rare syndrome that affects children. It is characterized by an inflammation of the walls of the arteries throughout the body. Symptoms include:
A rash on the legs, arms, and torso and between the genitals and anus.
A rash on the soles of the feet and palms of the hand, sometimes with peeling skin.
Swollen, chapped, and dry lips.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


30. Syphilis
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The disease is treatable, but will not go away on its own. Symptoms vary depending on the stage of the disease and include:
Initially - painless, firm, and round syphilitic sores (chancres).
Later - non-itchy red/brown rash that starts on the trunk and spreads across the body.
Oral, anal, and genital wart-like sores.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


31. Typhoid
Typhoid is caused by a bacterial infection. It is spread quickly by contact with the feces of an infected person. If untreated, 25 percent of cases end in death. Symptoms can include:
Rash - rose-colored spots, especially on the neck and abdomen.
Fever - up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit.
Abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation.
Image credit: Charles N. Farmer, CDC/ Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1964


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


32. Dengue fever
Dengue fever, also called breakbone fever, is transmitted by mosquitos. The condition ranges from mild to severe. Symptoms can include:
Initially a flat, red rash appears over most of the body.
Later, a secondary rash appears, similar to measles.
Severe joint and muscle aches.
Image credit: calliopejen, 2009


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


33. Ebola
Ebola is a serious viral disease; it spreads rapidly through families and friends and can often be fatal. Often, a rash is one of the symptoms:
Initially, a short-lived mild rash may be present.
Rashes begin to peel and look like sunburn.
Later in the disease, the rash may turn to abscesses.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


34. SARS
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a contagious and sometimes fatal respiratory illness. Symptoms can include:
skin rash
chills
stiff muscles


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


35. Contact dermatitis
Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes in contact with an irritant; it is relatively common, and can be unpleasant. Symptoms include:
red, flaky rash that stings
blistered skin
burning sensation
cracked skin


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


36. Fungal infection
Although some fungi live naturally on the human body, sometimes, they can overtake. Symptoms depend on where the infection strikes, but can include:
a red rash with a circular shape and raised edges
cracking, flaking, or dry peeling of the skin in the infected area
chafing, irritation, itching, or burning in the infected area


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


37. Drug allergy
Certain people have allergic reactions to prescribed drugs. The body's immune system mistakenly attacks the medication as if it were a pathogen. Symptoms vary depending on the individual and the drug, but can include:
Rash, including hives
Itchy skin or eyes
Swelling


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


38. Atypical pneumonia
Also called walking pneumonia, atypical pneumonia is less severe than the typical form. Symptoms can include:
rashes (uncommon)
weakness and fatigue
chest pain, especially when breathing deeply


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


39. Erysipelas
Erysipelas is a skin infection. It is a form of cellulitis, however, unlike cellulitis, it only affects the upper layers of the skin, rather than deeper tissue. The skin in a particular area becomes:
swollen, red, and shiny
tender and warm to the touch
red streaks above the affected area
Image credit: CDC/Dr. Thomas F. Sellers/Emory University


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


40. Reye's syndrome
Reye's syndrome is rare and most commonly occurs in children. It can cause serious damage to the body's organs, particularly the brain and liver (image opposite shows fat accumulation in liver cells). Early symptoms include:
Rash on the palms of the hands and feet.
Repeated, heavy vomiting.
Lethargy, confusion, and headaches.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


41. Addisonian crisis
Addisonian crisis - also known as an adrenal crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency - is a rare and potentially fatal condition where the adrenal glands stop working correctly. Symptoms include:
skin reactions, including rashes
low blood pressure
fever, chills, and sweating


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


42. Chemical burns
Chemical burns are relatively common; they can occur when a person comes in direct contact with a chemical or its fumes. Symptoms vary but can include:
skin that appears black or dead
irritation, burning, or redness in the affected area
numbness and pain


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


43. Colorado tick fever
Colorado tick fever, also known as mountain tick fever and American tick fever is a viral infection that develops after a bite from a Rocky Mountain wood tick. Symptoms can include:
a flat or pimply rash
skin or muscle pain
fever


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


44. Accidental poisoning by soap products
Some soap products contain strong chemicals. If they are ingested or inhaled, they can cause serious damage. Symptoms can include:
chemical burns on the skin
swelling of the throat, lips, and tongue
difficulty breathing


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


45. Adult-onset Still's disease
Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory disorder that usually affects people in their 30s. Symptoms include:
A pink rash, mostly affecting the chest and thighs, which tends to fade quickly.
Joint and muscle pain, commonly affecting the knees, wrists, and ankles.
Enlarged spleen, liver, or lymph nodes.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


46. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common form of arthritis in children; it used to be called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms vary depending on the subtype, but can include:
fleeting rashes
a scaly psoriasis-like rash
spiking fever


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


47. Histoplasmosis
Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection of the lungs. Sometimes, it presents no symptoms, but in other cases, it produces pneumonia-like symptoms; these include:
rash
chest pain
red bumps on lower legs


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


48. Dermatomyositis
Dermatomyositis is a medical condition that causes muscle weakness and rashes. The rash may be red and patchy or bluish-purple in color; it appears in a number of places, including:
shoulders and upper back
knuckles
palms and fingers
around the eyes


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


49. Graft-versus-host disease
People being treated for certain cancers may sometimes undergo a stem cell transplant; in some cases, the donor cells attack the recipient's healthy cells instead of the cancer cells. Symptoms can include:
Rashes affecting the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, ears, or face.
Other skin changes, such as drying, scaling, scarring, hardening, and darkening.
Hair loss.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


50. Icthyosis vulgaris
Ichthyosis vulgaris is a hereditary skin condition that often begins in childhood. It is caused by a mutation in the gene that codes for the protein filaggrin; features include:
The skin's surface becomes dry, thick, and scaly.
The dryness is often accompanied by fine, white, or skin-colored scales.
It commonly affects the elbows, shins, face, scalp, and torso.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


51. Pemphigoid
Pemphigoid is a group of rare autoimmune conditions that primarily cause rashes and skin blistering; there are three main types:
Bullous pemphigoid - blistering on the lower torso, groin, armpits, inner thighs, soles, and palms.
Cicatricial pemphigoid - mostly affects mucous membranes.
Pemphigoid gestationis - develops during pregnancy and mostly affects the upper body.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


52. Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is a condition involving the growth of persistent or inappropriate granulomas or clumps of inflammatory cells. Symptoms include:
Erythema nodosum - a raised red rash on the lower extremities.
Nodules or growths under the skin, especially around scar tissue.
Skin discoloration.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


53. Phenylketonuria
Phenylketonuria is a genetic condition that affects how phenylalanine is broken down by the body. It affects around 1 in 10,000 babies in the U.S. If left untreated, phenylalanine builds up, causing:
skin rashes, such as eczema
lighter skin and eyes due to abnormal levels of melanin
seizures


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


54. Porphyria
Porphyria refers to a group of genetic disorders that can affect the nervous system or the skin; symptoms are varied but can include:
redness and swelling on the skin
burning pain on the skin
changes in skin pigmentation


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


55. Dermatitis neglecta
Dermatitis neglecta is a skin disorder that arises when an individual does not clean themselves sufficiently. It can look similar to other allergic conditions. Symptoms include patches of scaly skin that are collections of:
sweat and moisture
dirt
bacteria and other germs
Image credit: Dr. Piotr Brzezinski Ph.D.


نقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة


56. Heliotrope rash
Heliotrope rash is often the first noticeable symptom of an inflammatory muscle disease called dermatomyositis. The rash often includes:
raised and bumpy skin
red patches
skin looks dry and irritated
Image credit: Elizabeth M. Dugan, Adam M. Huber, Frederick W. Miller, Lisa G. Rider, 2010



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Dermatology
Immune System / Vaccines Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses

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Article last updated on Wed 2 August 2017.

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Sexual diseases بحث انجليزى على الانترنت عن الامراض المنقولة جنسيا -انصحك بالقراءة باحث_علمى العلوم و الاختراعات و الاكتشافات العلمية 0 06-04-2019 02:19 AM
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